profiler MTP-5, microwave profiler
The history of creating and introduction of the MTP-5 microwave profiler
The idea of using microwave radiometry to measure temperature profiles of the atmospheric boundary layer was suggested by A.V. Troitsky and realized jointly with E.N. Kadygrov and A.N. Shaposhnikov in 1989. The first experimental instrument (alfa-sample) based on an upgraded microwave system measuring stratospheric temperature profiles from high-altitude balloons, developed at the Central Aerological Observatory (project director E.N. Kadygrov) jointly with specialists from the Institute of Space Research of the USSR Academy of Sciences ( I.A. Strukov, Dr.of Sc , with his co-workers) in 1986-1989 [1-3].
Also, calculations of the molecular oxygen absorption coefficient were made and compared with the experimental data obtained using unique laboratory setups developed jointly with specialists from the Research and Production Association “Etalon” ( Irkutsk) [5, 6].
The results of the development of the new technique and successful field tests of the experimental profiler were first published in the All-Union Conference Proceedings  in 1990, and then, in 1992, in the Proceedings of the International Conference in Britain  and in the journal “ Izvestia Vuzov, Radiofizika (in Russian) ; in 1993, the results were also published and copyrighted in the USA, in the journal of the International Union of Engineers “IEEE Trans.on Geophysics and Remote Sounding” .
These results entered, as a separate section, A.V. Troitsky’s doctoral thesis (1993) and Evgeny. Kadygrov’s PhD thesis (1990), with cross references included. Further development of the technique and experimental instrumentation continued at the Central Aerological Observatory, under Evgeny Kadygrov’s direction, within the framework of research projects during 1991-2006, and the outputs were reported to the Central Commission for Instrumentation and Observational Techniques of the Russian Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring (Roshydromet). As suggested by Evgeny Kadygrov, the new instrument was called MTP-5 (Meteorological Temperature Profiler for wavelength 5mm). The instrument from CAO received a Roshydromet certificate and included in the departmental registry of measuring aids for hydrometeorology.
The profiler experimental model was successfully tested during the international comparisons in Britain (1993) , Japan (1994-1995) , and USA (1996-1997) . The profilers data was also compared with radiosonde data of the upper-air station in Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region, and Obninsk meteorological tower . In 1993, concurrently with solving various scientific and methodological problems in measuring temperature profiles of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), the originally company “Atmospheric Technologies” (ATTEX Ltd) organized small-batch MTP-5 production.
In the course of the instrument development from an experimental model to a small-serial production one, several modifications have been introduced. Apart from Evgeny Kadygrov and Arcady Troitsky (general control), the work was fulfilled by S.A. Vyazankin, E.A. Miller, M.N. Khaikin, M.G. Sorokin, K.P. Gaykovich, V.D. Gromov, Sh.D. Kitay, N.N. Osharina, and A.A. Vlasov (data processing, calculation of molecular oxygen absorption coefficient, temperature profile retrieval algorithms and programs), A.N. Shaposhnikov, A.A. Khaldin, V.V. Nekrasov, and M.G. Sorokin ( hardware - radiometer), A.D. Lykov and V.V. Rudakov (microprocessor development), A.S. Vyazankin (comparison with the data of the meteorological tower and test measurements of turbulence and wind), A.V. Komotskov (assemblying), A.K. Kniazev (financial guidance), Yu.V. Agapov and A.F. Mironov (weather protection system development), V.D. Grinchenko and E.S. Kantorer (scanner development), Yu.V. Agapov, V.V. Folomeyev, and A.N. Kutarov (testing and putting into operation), A.V. Koldayev (exhibitions and contacts with Roshydromet to provide equipment supply), V.M. Ignatov (procurement of components and arrangement of separate component manufacture), A.F. Glazkova and T.V. Gubina (design and maintenance documentation).
During 1995-2010 MTP-5 have been developed and done promotion of with support Kipp&Zonen. It's makes evolution of the MTP-5 from scientific instrument, to real unmanned measuring system and good qualities. Since 1995 all MTP-5 abroad Russia have been sold via Kipp&Zonen.
So, the construction of this instrument, apparently very simple, operating continuously in an automatic mode, required great effort on the part of different specialists – physicists, mathematicians, radio physicists, radio engineers, meteorologists, designers, and mechanical engineers.
The team of specialists (with Evgeny Kadygrov as Principal Investigator) involved in the creation of the new technique and instrumentation to measure ABL temperature profiles received a Roshydromet award as ‘the best R&D work’ in 2002.
MTP-5 Profilers, being very compact, simple and reliable in all-weather operation, were primarily intended for operation on the weather observation network. Nevertheless, they were also found suitable for unique scientific research. The MPT-5 data was used by Academician G.S. Golitsyn (investigation of the urban atmospheric boundary layer , the corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences N.F. Elansky (the international experiment “TROICA” and studies of surface ozone variations at a high-mountain research station) , Prof. B.M. Koprov (studies of ABL convection) , I.N. Kuznetsova, PhD (studies of the urban heat island) , Prof. M.A. Kallistratova (stuidies of the temperature and wind ABL regime , Prof. G.I. Gorchakov (investigation of the influence of solar eclipses on the thermal ABL stratification) , Prof..I.G. Granberg (investigation of the peculiarities of thermal ABL stratification in arid regions during hot periods) . Unique measurements using both sodars and MTP-5 were made in Tomsk under the direction of S.L. Odintsov, PhD . During the period 2001-2012, the profilers were successfully used in implementing 9 projects of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (with project directors G.N. Shur, E.N. Kadygrov, I.G. Granberg, G.I. Gorchakov, I.V. Repina). Measurements with the MTP-5 were also fulfilled (E.N. Kadygrov, E.A. Miler, and V.E. Kadygrov) during the international experiment MAP (Mesoscale Alpine Program) in Switzerland . During 1993 - 2010 ATTEX company had made a list of rebranding actions. In 2010 there was a drop in sales of profilers. There was suggestion to increase a number of shareholders to support the company. After rebranding in April 2010, small-batch production of upgraded profilers MTP-5 was organized at the Research and Production Organization “ATTEX”, (R.P.O.”ATTEX” Ltd.).
In 2011 Kipp&Zonen by reason of the concentration own resources on other markets areas stop to represent MTP-5 via main office in Delft. It was friendly separation and Kipp&Zonen deliver the support of all MTP-5 profilers which have been sold before (1998-2010) to support by RPO ATTEX company.
In 2012, the new version of the profiler MTP-5 (internationally known as Meteorological Temperature Profiler) has been tested by the Federal Agency for Technical Control and Metrology. Now for MTP-5 (internationally known as Meteorological Temperature Profiler) there are :
- "Type approval certificate of measuring RU.C.32.002.A ¹ 45688",
- "CE international safety certificate"
- and "Quality Assurance Guidance for the Collection of Meteorological Data Using Passive Radiometers" Prepared by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
R.P.O.”ATTEX” Ltd. save experience of all the principal MTP-5 profiler developers (A.V. Troitsky, E.N. Kadygrov, A.N. Shaposhnikov, V.V. Nekrasov, E.A. Miller, A.D.Lykov, A.K. Kniazev, A.V. Komotskov, Yu.V. Agapov, and A.F. Glazkova). To improve the accuracy of temperature profile retrieval and facilitate data visualization, the new software has been developed, and the hardware was modified to provide higher vertical resolution and wider temperature range.
Currently, profilers MTP-5, manufactured by R.P.O. “ATTEX” Company,are successfully operating at the polar station SP-40, at Belgorod and Perm State Universities, at the Institute of Monitoring Climatic and Ecological Systems of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, at nuclear power stations, and abroad (USA, Norway, Kuwait, Greece, Italy, Vietnam, China, and etc).
The R.P.O. “ATTEX” Ltd is a member of the Association of Hydro-Meteorology Equipment Industry( HMEI) and an official dealer of the well-known company KIPP&ZONEN, Netherlands (founded in 1830). This appears to contribute to the authority of our company on the world market. During 2010-2013, specialists of the R.P.O. “ATTEX” Ltd fulfilled repairs and updating of the hardware and software of the profilers produced since 2000, and, upon the request of the company KIPP&ZONEN, has undertaken the maintenance of instruments previously supplied abroad.
The staff of the R.P.O. “ATTEX” Ltd includes highly qualified physicists, mathematicians, experienced engineers in the field of microwave technology for mm wavelength range, and programming engineers. Scientific and methodological guidance in using our temperature profilers is provided by specialists of the Federal State Budgetary Institutions “CAO” and “Hydrometcenter” [24-26]. The work pursuing further development of the microwave profilers will continue
- Kadygrov, E.N., Vlasov, A.A., Shaposhnikov, A.N., Shifrin, D.M., Troitsky, A.V., Aniskovich, V.M., Budilovich, N.V., Kosov, A.S., Strukov, I.A., Skulachev, D.P.,
1990.Balloon measurements of radio thermal stratospheric emission in the range 57-61 GHz. Voprosy Radioelektroniki, Ser. OVR, No.2, 28-34 (in Russian).
- Kadygrov, E.N., Shaposhnikov, A.N.
A method of remote stratospheric temperature measurement in a millimeter wavelength range,1990 Patent No. 1626912A1 (in Russian).
- Vlasov, A.A., Kadygrov, E.N.,
1990. Balloon microwave thermometry of the middle atmosphere. Doklady of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Vol. 4, No. 313, 831-834 (in Russian).
- Gaykovich, K.P., Kadygrov, E.N., Troitsky, A.V., Shaposhnikov, A.N.,
1990. Thermal sounding of the atmospheric boundary layer at 60 GHz. In: The use of remote radiophysical methods in studies of natural environment. Proceedings of the All-Union Conference, Yerevan. IRFE AN Ar.SSR, 28-29 (in Russian).
- Vlasov, A.A., Kadygrov, E.N., Glyzin, V.V., Kuklin, E.A.,
1990. Results of laboratory measurements of oxygen absorption coefficient in a 5-mm band. Izvestia of Academy of Sciences,USSR, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, No.7, 734-738 (in Russian).
- Vlasov, A.A., Kadygrov, E.N., Shaposhnikov, A.N.,
1990. Choosing a model to calculate oxygen absorption coefficient for atmospheric temperature profile determination using RPOce-borne microwave measurements. Earth Research from Space, No.1, 36-39 (in Russian).
- Gromov V.D., Kadygrov E.N., Kosov A.S.
Remote sensing of atmospheric boundary layer at 5 mm wavelength. // Open symposium "Wave propagation and remote sensing”. Ravenscar, UK, 8-12 June 1992. p. 3.4.1-3.4.5
- Gaykovich, K.P., Kadygrov, E.N., Kosov, A.S.,Troitsky, A.V.,
1992. Thermal sounding of the atmosphere boundary layer in oxygen absorption band center. Izvestia Vuzov, Radiofizika, Vol. 35, No. 2, 130-136 (in Russian).
- Troitsky A.V., Gaykovich K.P., Kadygrov E.N., Kosov A.S., Gromov V.A.
Thermal sounding of the atmosphere boundary layer in oxygen absorbtion band center.// IEEE Trans. on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 1993, v. 31, N 1 pp. 116-120
- Matsui I., Sugimoto N., Maksyutov S., Inoue G., Kadygrov E., Vyazankin S.
Comparison of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Structure Mesured with a Microwave Temperature Profiler and a Mie Scattering Lidar.// Jpn. Journal Appl. Phys., vol. 35, Port I, No 4A, April 1996., pp. 2168-2169.
- Kadygrov E.N., Pick D.R.
The potential for temperature retrieval from an angular- scanning single-channel microwave radiometer and some comparisons with in situ observations.// Oxford Press, Meteorological Applications, vol.5, issue 4, 1998, pp. 393-404.
- Westwater E.R., Han Y., Irisov V.G., Leuvskiy V., Kadygrov E.N., Viazankin A.S.
Remote sensing of boundary layer temperature profiles by a scanning 5-mm microwave radiometer and RASS: Comparison Experiments.// Journal of Atmospheric, and Oceanic Technology., vol. 16, July 1999, pp. 805-818.
- Vyazankin,A.S., Kadygrov, E.N., Mazurin, N.F., Troitsky, a.V., Shur, G/N/, 2001.
Comparison of the data of microwave radiometer and high-altitude meteorological tower in measurements of temperature profile and inhomogeneity structure. Meteorology and Hydrology, No.3, 34-44 (in Russian).
- Kadygrov, E.N., Kuznetsova, I.N., Golitsin, G.S., 2002.
Heat island in the atmospheric boundary layer over a large city: new results based on remote data. Doklady of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Vol.385, No.4, 541-548 (in Russian).
- Kuznetsova, I.N., Elansky, N.F., Shalygina, I.Yu., Kadygrov, E.N., Lykov, A.D., 2002.
Temperature inversions and their influence on surface ozone concentration in the environs of Kislovodsk. Meteorology and Hydrology, No.9, 40-51 (in Russian).
- Koprov B.M., Koprov V.M., Kadygrov E.N., and Makarova T.I.
On the features of radiative and convective regimes under the cumulus cloudiness. // Izv. RAN, Physics Atmosphere and Ocean, 2004, vol. 40, N 4, 470-484.
- Kadygrov E., Khaikine M., Kuznetsova I., Miller E.
Investigation of urban heat island on the basis of stationary and mobile microwave systems for remote measurements of atmospheric temperature profiles.// Proc. Of SPIE, Optical Technologies for Atmospheric, Ocean and Environmental Studies, vol. 5832, part two, 2005, pp. 503-513.
- Kadygrov E.N.
Operational aspects of different ground-based remote sensing observing techniques for vertical profiling of temperature, wind, humidity and cloud structure: a review. WMO, IOM Report N 89, WMO/TD N 1309, Geneva, Switzerland, 2006, pp. 39
- Lokoshchenko, M.A., Kallistratova, M.A., Kadygrov, E.N., Odintsov, S.L.,
2007. Acoustic radar and microwave radiometer as a basis for a system of observations of the lower troposphere and its influence on the dynamics of minor species content. Proceedings. Reports of the All-Russia Conference ” Development of the system of atmospheric composition monitoring”, Moscow, 16-18 October 2007, 101 (in Russian).
- Gorchakov, G.I., Kadygrov, E.N., Isakov a.A., Karpov, A.V., Miller, E.a.,
2007. Solar eclipse effect on thermal stratification and turbulence regime. Doklady of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Vol. 417, No.1, 90-93 (in Russian).
- Kadygrov, E.N.,
2009. Microwave radiometry of the atmospheric boundary layer: technique, instrumentation, measurement results. Atmospheric and Ocean Optics, Vol. 22, No.7, 697-704 (in Russian).
- Gladkikh, v.A., Makienko, a.E., Miller, E.A., Odintsov, S.L.,
2010. Investigation of the atmospheric boundary layer parameters in urban conditions using in situ and remote diagnosing means. Part 2. Air temperature and heat flux. Atmospheric and Ocean Optics, Vol. 23, No.11, 978-994 (in Russian).
- Rotach,M.W. Kadygrov E.N., Kadygrov V.N., Miller E.A., et al.
Turbulence structure and exchange processes in an alpine valley: The Riviera Project.// Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 2004, vol. 85, N 9, pp. 1367-1385.
- Kuznetsova, I.N., Nakhayev, M.I., Kadygrov, E.N., Miller, E.N.,
2010 Methodological recommendations for using MTP-5 profilometer data. Moscow. Approved by the Central Comission for Hydrometeorological Forecasting of Roshydromet , 26 April 2010. (In Russian).
- Kuznetsova, I.N., Kadygrov, E.N., Miller, E.N. , Nakhayev, M.I.,
2012. Temperature characteristics in the lower 600-m atmospheric layer based on the data of MTP-5 remote measurements. Atmospheric and Ocean Optics, Vol. 25, No. 10, 877-883 (in Russian).
- Kuznetsova, I.N., Nakhayev, M.I., Shalygina, I.Yu., Kadygrov, E.N., Miller, E.N., Lyakhov, A.A.,
2012. Temperature characteristics in the lower 600-m atmospheric layer based on MTP-5 profilometer data. Handbook, Moscow. Approved by the Central Comission for Hydrometeorological Forecasting of Roshydromet, 13 December 2012. (In Russian).
- Kadygrov E.N., E.A.Miller, A.V. Troitsky.
Study of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Thermodynamics During Total Solar Eclipses// IEEE Transactions and Remote Sensing,2013, vol.51, Issue 9,pp. 4672-4677.
Information is prepared by: A.V.Troitsky., Dr of Sc, E.N. Kadygrov, Dr of Sc, A.K. Knyazev, PhD in physics and mathematics, with the participation of Prof. A.G. Gorelik, Dr of Sc.